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Dr Terry Bilverstone

Profile summary

Professional biography


Terry Bilverstone is a Lecturer in Biomedical Sciences (Clinical Microbiology). He was awarded his PhD on the virulence of Clostridioides difficile, in 2019 from the University of Nottingham, UK. His research focuses on the application of engineering biology principles, to develop alternative antimicrobial agents for combatting the pathogenic clostridia. Terry researches the function and genetic regulation of clostridial toxins, in order to direct the development of anti-virulence strategies thereto. He also conducts research into the genetic engineering of bacteriophages (phages), to enhance their potential as therapeutic agents.  


Terry is a Junior Editor for Letters in Applied Microbiology - a flagship journal of Applied Microbiology International. 

Research interests

Understanding C. difficile toxin biology.

Isolating novel phages infecting C. difficile.

Engineering phages with enhanced therapeutic properties.

Developing alternative antimicrobial agents to combat the pathogenic clostridia.

Accepting funded PhD studentship applications. 

Teaching interests

  • Clinical microbiology
  • Molecular microbiology
  • Infection biology
  • Antimicrobial resistance 


Clostridioides difficile Binary Toxin Binding Component Increases Virulence in a Hamster Model (2023-01-31)
Simpson, Morgan; Bilverstone, Terry; Leslie, Jhansi; Donlan, Alexandra; Uddin, Md Jashim; Petri, William A; Marin, Natasha; Kuehne, Sarah; Minton, Nigel P and Petri, William A
Open Forum Infectious Diseases, 10(3)

A Novel Bacteriophage with Broad Host Range against Clostridioides difficile Ribotype 078 Supports SlpA as the Likely Phage Receptor (2022-02-02)
Whittle, M. J.; Bilverstone, T. W.; van Esveld, R. J.; Lücke, A. C.; Lister, M. M.; Kuehne, S. A.; Minton, N. P. and Auchtung, Jennifer M.
Microbiology Spectrum, 10(1)

What's a SNP between friends: The lineage of Clostridioides difficile R20291 can effect research outcomes (2021-07-31)
Monteford, Jorge; Bilverstone, Terry W.; Ingle, Patrick; Philip, Sheryl; Kuehne, Sarah A. and Minton, Nigel P.
Anaerobe, 71, Article 102422

The glucosyltransferase activity of C. difficile Toxin B is required for disease pathogenesis (2020)
Bilverstone, Terry W.; Garland, Megan; Cave, Rory J.; Kelly, Michelle L.; Tholen, Martina; Bouley, Donna M.; Kaye, Philip; Minton, Nigel P.; Bogyo, Matthew; Kuehne, Sarah A. and Melnyk, Roman A.
PLOS Pathogens, 16, Article e1008852(9)

Phosphorylation and functionality of CdtR in Clostridium difficile (2019-07-19)
Bilverstone, T.W.; Minton, N.P. and Kuehne, S.A.
Anaerobe, 58 (pp. 103-109)

Development of Clostridium difficile R20291ΔPaLoc model strains and in vitro methodologies reveals CdtR is required for the production of CDT to cytotoxic levels (2017-01-17)
Bilverstone, T.W.; Kinsmore, N.L.; Minton, N.P. and Kuehne, S.A.
Anaerobe, 44 (pp. 51-54)

Manipulation of Conditions during Wort Collection in Production-Scale Fermentations to Regulate Volatile Ester Synthesis as an Aid to Product Matching for Multisite Brewing (2015)
Bilverstone, Terry W.; White, Rod and Boulton, Chris A.
Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists, 73(4) (pp. 347-353)

Engineering Clostridioides difficile phages for therapeutic use – identifying the potential repressor gene (2022-09)
Kerr, S.; Bilverstone, T.W. and Minton, N.P.
In : Phages: Bacteriophage in Medicine, Food and Biotechnology (05-06 Sep 2022, Oxford, United Kingdom.)

Phosphorylation and functionality of CdtR in Clostridium difficile (2018-07)
Bilverstone, T.W.; Minton, N.P. and Kuehne, S.A.
In : The 14th Biennial Congress of the Anaerobe Society of the Americas (09-12 Jul 2018, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA.)

CdtR (only) the regulator of binary toxin in Clostridium difficile (2016-07)
Bilverstone, T. W.; Kinsmore, N. L.; Minton, N. P. and Kuehne, S. A.
In : The 13th Biennial Congress of the Anaerobe Society of the Americas (11-14 Jul 2016, Tennessee, USA.)

Construction and Characterisation of CDR20291 ΔPaLoc Model Strains for the Study of Binary Toxin Regulation in Clostridium difficile. (2016-03)
Bilverstone, Terry; Kinsmore, Natasha; Minton, Nigel and Kuehne, Sarah
In : Microbiology Society Annual Conference 2016 (21-24 Mar 2016, Liverpool, UK.)

A laboratory-scale fermentation system and its application to developing predictable regimes for the control of volatile ester formation at production scale (2013-05)
Bilverstone, Terry W.; Boulton, Chris A. and White, Rod
In : 2013 ASBC Annual Meeting (19-22 May 2013, Tucson, Arizona, USA.)