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  2. Dr Sandra Williams

Dr Sandra Williams

Research Activity

Research groups

NameTypeParent Unit
CRC (LM & KT): Natural Language GenerationGroupFaculty of Mathematics, Computing and Technology
CRC (LM & KT): Natural Language ProcessingGroupFaculty of Mathematics, Computing and Technology

Publications

Hedging and rounding in numerical expressions (2013-09)
Williams, Sandra and Power, Richard
Pragmatics & Cognition, 21(1) (pp. 193-223)
Generating numerical approximations (2012-03)
Power, Richard and Williams, Sandra
Computational Linguistics, 38(1) (pp. 113-134)
Automating generation of textual class definitions from OWL to English (2011-05-17)
Stevens, Robert ; Malone, James ; Williams, Sandra; Power, Richard and Third, Allan
Journal of Biomedical Semantics, 2(S 2:S5)
Generating basic skills reports for low-skilled readers (2008)
Williams, Sandra and Reiter, Ehud
Natural Language Engineering, 14(4) (pp. 495-525)
Generating texts in different styles (2010)
Reiter, Ehud and Williams, Sandra
In: Argamon, Shlomo; Burns, Kevin and Dubnov, Shlomo eds. The Structure of Style: Algorithmic Approaches to Manner and Meaning. (pp. 59-78)
ISBN : 978-3-642-12336-8 | Publisher : Springer | Published : Heidelberg
How easy is it to learn a controlled natural language for building a knowledge base? (2014-08-22)
Williams, Sandra; Power, Richard and Third, Allan
In : Fourth Workshop on Controlled Natural Language (20–22 August 2014, Galway, Ireland) (pp. 20-32)
A system for the simplification of numerical expressions at different levels of understandability (2013-06-14)
Bautista, Susana; Hervás, Raquel ; Gervás, Pablo ; Power, Richard and Williams, Sandra
In : Natural Language Processing for Improving Textual Accessibility (NLP4ITA 2013) (14 June 2013, Atlanta, GA, USA) (pp. 10-19)
Predicting the understandability of OWL inferences (2013-05)
Nguyen, Tu Anh T.; Power, Richard; Piwek, Paul and Williams, Sandra
In : Extended Semantic Web Conference 2013 (ESWC 2013) - Research Track (26th May to 30th May, 2013, Montpellier, France) (pp. 109-123)
Measuring the understandability of deduction rules for OWL (2012-10)
Nguyen, Tu; Power, Richard; Piwek, Paul and Williams, Sandra
In : First International Workshop on Debugging Ontologies and Ontology Mappings (8th October 2012, Galway, Ireland)
Planning accessible explanations for entailments in OWL ontologies (2012-05)
Nguyen, Tu Anh T.; Power, Richard; Piwek, Paul and Williams, Sandra
In : 7th International Natural Language Generation Conference (INLG 2012) (30 May-1 June 2012, Utica, IL, USA) (pp. 110-114)
Generating mathematical word problems (2011-11-04)
Williams, Sandra
In : 2011 Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) Fall Symposium on Question Generation (4-6 November 2011, Arlington, Virginia, USA) (pp. 61-64)
OWL to English: a tool for generating organised easily-navigated hypertexts from ontologies (2011-10-23)
Third, Allan; Williams, Sandra and Power, Richard
In : 10th International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC 2011) (23 - 27 Oct 2011, Bonn, Germany)
Levels of organisation in ontology verbalisation (2011-09-30)
Williams, Sandra; Third, Allan and Power, Richard
In : 13th European Workshop on Natural Language Generation (28-30 September 2011, Nancy, France)
How to make numerical information accessible: experimental identification of simplification strategies (2011-09-09)
Bautista, Susana; Hervás, Raquel ; Gervás, Pablo; Power, Richard and Williams, Sandra
In : 13th IFIP TC 13 International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (INTERACT 2011) (5-9 September 2011, Lisbon, Portugal)
Experimental identification of the use of hedges in the simplification of numerical expressions (2011-07-30)
Bautista, Susana ; Hervás, Raquel ; Gervás, Pablo ; Power, Richard and Williams, Sandra
In : Second Workshop on Speech and Language Processing for Assistive Technologies (SLPAT) (30 July 2011, Edinburgh, Scotland)
Grouping axioms for more coherent ontology descriptions (2010-07-07)
Williams, Sandra and Power, Richard
In : 6th International Natural Language Generation Conference (INLG 2010) (07-09 Jul 2010, Dublin, Ireland) (pp. 197-202)
Automating class definitions from OWL to English (2010-07)
Stevens, Robert; Malone, James; Williams, Sandra and Power, Richard
In : Proceedings of Bio-Ontologies 2010: Semantic Applications in Life Sciences SIG at the 18th Annual International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology (ISMB 2010) (9-13 July 2010, Boston, USA)
A fact-aligned corpus of numerical expressions (2010-05)
Williams, Sandra and Power, Richard
In : Proceedings of the Seventh conference on International Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2010) (19-21 May 2010, Malta)
Precision and mathematical form in first and subsequent mentions of numerical facts and their relation to document structure (2009)
Williams, Sandra and Power, Richard
In : Proceedings of 12th European Workshop on Natural Language Generation (30-31 March 2009, Athens, Greece) (pp. 118-121)
SkillSum: basic skills screening with personalised, computer-generated feedback (2008-09-24)
Williams, Sandra and Reiter, Ehud
In : Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Interactive Computer Aided Learning (24 - 26 Sept 2008, Villach, Austria) (pp. 1-8)
Deriving rhetorical complexity data from the RST-DT Corpus (2008-05-28)
Williams, Sandra and Power, Richard
In : Proceedings of the Sixth International Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'08) (28-30 May 2008, Marrakech, Morocco)
Three Approaches to Generating Texts in Different Styles (2008-04)
Reiter, Ehud and Williams, Sandra
In : Proceedings of the Symposium on Style in text: creative generation and identification of authorship, Volume 7, The Society for the Study of Artificial Intelligence and the Simulation of Behaviour (AISB 2008) (1-4 April 2008, University of Aberdeen, UK)
Simulating emotional reactions in medical dramas (2008)
Williams, Sandra; Power, Richard and Piwek, Paul
In : Proceedings of the Symposium on Affective Language in Human and Machine, Volume 2, The Society for the Study of Artificial Intelligence and the Simulation of Behaviour (AISB) 2008 Convention: Communication, Interaction and Social Intelligence (1-2 April 2008, Aberdeen, UK)
Generating monologue and dialogue to present personalised medical information to patients (2007)
Williams, Sandra; Piwek, Paul and Power, Richard
In : Proceedings of the 11th European Workshop on Natural Language Generation (17-20 Jun 2007)
Generating Feedback Reports for Adults Taking Basic Skills Tests (2005-12)
Reiter, Ehud and Williams, Sandra
In : Proceeding of the The Twenty-fifth SGAI International Conference on Innovative Techniques and Applications of Artificial Intelligence (12-14 Dec 2005, Cambridge, UK)
Deriving content selection rules from a corpus of non-naturally occurring documents for a novel NLG application (2005-07-05)
Williams, Sandra and Reiter, Ehud
In : Proceedings of the Corpus Linguistics 2005 Workshop on Using Corpora for Natural Language Generation (14 July 2005, Birmingham, UK) (pp. 41-48)
Generating readable texts for readers with low basic skills (2005)
Williams, Sandra and Reiter, Ehud
In : Proceeding of the 10th European Workshop on Natural Language Generation (8-10 August 2005, Aberdeen, UK)
Appropriate Microplanning Choices for Low-Skilled Readers (2005)
Williams, Sandra and Reiter, Ehud
In : Proceedings of the Nineteenth International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI-05 ) (30 July - 5 Aug 2005, Edinburgh, UK)
Reading errors made by skilled and unskilled readers: evaluating a system that generates reports for people with poor literacy (2004-08)
Williams, Sandra and Reiter, Ehud
In : Fourteenth Annual Meeting of the Society for Text and Discourse (1 - 4 August, 2004, Chicago, Illinois) (pp. 21-21)
Experiments with discourse-level choices and readability (2003-08)
Williams, Sandra; Reiter, Ehud and Osman, Liesl
In : Proceedings of the 9th European Workshop on Natural Language Generation (ENLG-2003) (13-14 April 2003, Budapest, Hungary) (pp. 127-134)
Acquiring and Using Limited User Models in NLG (2003-08)
Reiter, Ehud; Sripada, Somayajulu and Williams, Sandra
In : Proceedings of the 9th European Workshop on Natural Language Generation (ENLG-2003) (13-14 April 2003, Budapest, Hungary) (pp. 87-94)
Language choice models for microplanning and readability (2003-05)
Williams, Sandra
In : Proceedings of the Student Workshop of the Human Language Technology and North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics (27 May - 1 June, 2003, Edmonton, Canada) (pp. 13-18)
A corpus analysis of discourse relations for Natural Language Generation (2003-03)
Williams, Sandra and Reiter, Ehud
In : Proceedings of the Corpus Linguistics 2003 conference (28 - 31 March, 2003, Lancaster University, UK) (pp. 899-908)
Justification Patterns for OWL DL Ontologies (2011-05-25)
Nguyen, Tu Anh T.; Power, Richard; Piwek, Paul and Williams, Sandra
Department of Computing, The Open University

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